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# Functional programming in Rust

Rust is a modern, multi paradigm language with the following primary goals:

• Performance (zero cost abstractions)
• Reliability (no data races)

Rust is strongly influenced by functional programming languages like ML, so it is possible to follow a functional coding style in it. However being functional is not one of Rust's explicit goals.

In this post (and possibly follow up ones) I'll explore functional programming in Rust. This is not an introduction to Rust or functional programming. Basic familiarity with them is assumed.

## Functional Programming

The goal of programming is to manage complexity.

In functional programming we manage complexity by principled composition - large things are composed of small things.

The more things we can compose together the better abstractions we can build and reduce complexity. The building blocks are types and functions, and let us see how well we can compose them in Rust.

## Algebraic data types

Lets start with types. One way to classify types is by looking at number of inhabitants, that is, how many values of a particular type exists. For eg, the unit type (`()` in Rust) has only one value, `bool` has two values etc. Apart from builtin types, Rust supports Sum and Product types, which means we can combine basic types using addition or multiplication (in terms of number of inhabitants). The key insight here is that we can use the familiar algebra from maths to reason about them, hence the name.

In Rust we could create a sum type by using `enum`. Think of it more like type constructor in Haskell, than enum in C/Java.

For eg. we can create a type with a two values as follows:

 ``````1 2 3 4 `````` ``````enum Wing { // name of type Left // value Right // value } ``````

A product type can be created using a tuple `(A, B)` or `struct`.

Here are examples of some types:

0 `enum Void {}` `data Void` or
`Data.Void`
1 `enum Unit { Unit }` or
`()`
`data Unit = Unit` or
`()`
1 + 1 `enum Direction { Up, Down }` or
`bool`
`data Direction = Up | Down` or
`Boolean`
1 + A `enum Option<A> { Some(A), None }` `data Maybe a = Just a | Nothing`
A + B `enum Result<A, B> { Ok(A), Err(B) }` `data Either a b = Left a | Right b`
A * B `(A, B)` or
`struct Tuple { a: A, b: B }`
`data (a, b) = (a, b)`

As you can see we can compose types using addition or multiplication. This is useful in modelling types.

For eg. since `A + A = 2 * A`, we could represent a type `enum Score<A> { Left(A), Right(A) }` as `(bool, A)`. Intuitively, the boolean represents whether the value is left or right.

## Pattern matching

A language feature that goes well with algebraic data types in pattern matching. It helps to deconstruct data out of types in a simple way. Rust offers powerful pattern matching support and almost anything can be deconsutructed using it. For example with the following types:

 `````` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 `````` ``````enum Maybe { Just(A), Nothing } struct Person { name: String, age: u8, email: Maybe } ``````

we can pattern match things out of it using:

 `````` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 `````` ``````let person = Person { name: "Alice".to_string(), age: 25, email: Just("alice@example.com".to_string()) }; match person { Person { name : name, age: age, email : Just(email) } => println!("Person {}, aged {} with email {}", name, age, email), Person { name: name, age: age, email : Nothing } => println!("Person {}, aged {} with no email", name, age) } ``````

Pattern guards and capturing pattern in a single variable is also supported. For eg:

 ``````1 2 3 4 5 6 `````` ``````match someVar { Some(val @ 0 ... 9) => println!("within 0 to 9, {}", val), Some(val) if val > 20 => println!("greater than 20, {}", val), Some(val) => println!("Should be less than 20, {}", val), None => println!("None") } ``````

Patterns is commonly used in match expressions but they can be used in place of identifier in other places as well like variable declaration, function arguments etc.

## Functions

Functions are first class in Rust and it supports closures as well.

However, one has to think about ownership and lifetime of variables when dealing with them. Basically Rust is not a language with garbage collection and the programmer has to give hints to the compiler about ownership of variables so they can be dropped after use. This is probably the hardest part to get while learning Rust and also what makes Rust special.

 ``````1 2 3 4 5 6 `````` ``````fn factorial(n: u64) -> u64 { match n { 0 | 1 => 1, n => n * factorial(n - 1), } } ``````

This is a straightforward translation of recursive definition of factorial; `factorial(n) = n * factorial(n-1)`. While this is fairly clear, it is often better to use high level combinators than explicit recursion. So we can write above as:

 ``````1 2 3 `````` ``````fn factorial(n: u64) -> u64 { (1..n+1).fold(1, |acc, i| acc * i) } ``````

where `|acc, i| acc * i` is a closure (similar to `\acc i -> acc * i` in Haskell, or `(acc, i) -> acc * i` in Java). So the above code basically takes range of numbers from 1 to n inclusive and multiplies them.

Note: Most of the operators in Rust have traits associated with it. So the `*` operator above is defined in `std::ops::Mul` trait and `acc * i` is a short hand for `acc.mul(i)`. So the above can also be written as:

`(1..n+1).fold(1, Mul::mul)`

This makes it clear that `factorial(n)` is the product of first n natural numbers. It can be made explicit by using the builtin `product` function, which folds over using multiplication.

 ``````1 2 3 `````` ``````fn factorial(n: u64) -> u64 { (1..n+1).product() } ``````

The key here is all of the above does not have any performance overhead, it performs similar to an imperative loop that multiplies the numbers.

## Higher order functions

Now lets look at how to define and use higher order functions. Function types in Rust implement the `Fn` trait (think of traits as something similar to type classes). A function that takes in type `X` and return type `Y` can be represented as `Fn(X) -> Y`.

For example, consider a function that takes a function and calls it with given argument:

 `````` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 `````` ``````fn apply(f: F, arg: A) -> B where F: Fn(A) -> B { f(arg) } fn square(a: i32) -> i32 { a * a } // apply can take another function as argument let n: i32 = apply(square, 4); // n = 16 // apply can also take a closure as argument let n: i32 = apply(|x| x * x, 4); // n = 16 ``````

A more interesting example of higher order function is the fixed point function. A fixed point of a function `f` is a value `a` such that `f(a) == a`. One way to define the fixed point function is provided in sicp. We can translate that to Rust almost verbatim by adding in the right types.

 `````` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 `````` ``````const TOLERANCE: f64 = 0.000001; fn fixed_point(f: F, first_guess: f64) -> f64 where F: Fn(f64) -> f64 { // Check if v1 and v2 are close enough to be considered equal fn close_enough(v1: f64, v2: f64) -> bool { (v2 - v1).abs() < TOLERANCE } // Call f(guess) and see if it is close enough to guess. If so // we have found the fix point of f fn try_guess(guess: f64, f: F) -> f64 where F: Fn(f64) -> f64 { let next = f(guess); if close_enough(guess, next) { guess } else { try_guess(next, f) } } try_guess(first_guess, f) } fn sqrt(x: f64) -> f64 { fixed_point(|y| (y + x/y) / 2.0, 1.0) } ``````

How about functions returning functions? One way is to return a closure, but it requires little more work that you would expect. For example, consider the `compose` function that composes two functions `f` and `g`:

 ``````1 2 3 4 `````` ``````fn compose(f: F, g: G) -> impl Fn(X) -> Z where F: Fn(X) -> Y, G: Fn(Y) -> Z { move |x| g(f(x)) } ``````

This might look unfamiliar, so lets go through it:

• `X, Y, Z, F and G` are type parameters. `F` is type of a function that takes an argument of type `X` and returns `Y` etc.
• `impl Fn(X) -> Z`: The function returns a closure. Since the actual type that is returned might vary per call (each closure is of a different type since the capturing variables might differ), we need to tell compiler that what we really return is an implementation of the `Fn` trait.
• `move` This is related to ownership. Since we return a closure, we don't know when that is called and its lifetime may outlive the function. So the closure needs to own the variables instead of borrowing it. This might seem confusing at first, but rust compiler has excellent error messages to guide you here.

Note: `Fn` is not the only function type. There is also FnOnce which only can be called once, and FnMut which allows the closure to mutate state.

## Conclusion

Hope you got a basic taste of functional programming in Rust. Rust has pretty good support for functional programming compared to languages like Java or C++, but not as much as a pure functional language like Haskell. Rust is a good choice if performance and reliability are what you are after with good support for building composable software. It has excellent documentation, good community and a friendly compiler.